Influence of growth hormone therapy on selected dental and skeletal system parameters

Małgorzata Partyka 1, Renata Chałas 2, Izabella Dunin- Wilczyńska 1, Myroslava Drohomyretska 3, Maria Klatka 4
1 - Department of Orthodontics. Medical University, Lublin, Poland
2 - Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. Medical University, Lublin, Poland
3 - Department of Orthodontics. Medical University, Kiev, Ukraine
4 - Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology. Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
Ann Agric Environ Med

ICID: 1233573
Article type: Original article
 
 
Abstract
Introduction
. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is one of the main indications for growth hormone therapy. One characteristic of this disease is bone age delay in relation to the chronological age. Pituitary dysfunction negatively affects the growth and development of the jaws and teeth of the child. The secretion of endocrine glands regulates growth, development, and gender differentiation. It also controls the growth of bones and teeth, regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphate, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The primary role in the endocrine system is played by the pituitary gland which is responsible for the production of somatotropin[1]. Dysfunction of the pituitary gland has a negative effect on the growth and development of long bones in the body, and may have an adverse effect on the development of maxilla, mandible and dentition of a child. There is some information in the literature that dental age is delayed in short stature children; the replacement of deciduous teeth by permanent teeth is also delayed, and newly erupted permanent teeth often require orthodontic treatment. Applying hormonal therapy positively affects the process of replacement of dentition [2, 3, 4, 5, 6].
Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess bone and dental age, as well as analyze the state of dentition in children diagnosed with GH deficiency treated with growth hormone, depending on the duration of treatment.
Materials and method. The study material consisted of 110 children (27 males, 83 females), hospitalized for somatotropin hypopituitarism in the Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland. The mean birth age was 13 years (156 months) with a standard deviation of 2 years and 6 months (30 months). 47 children (43%) started treatment with the growth hormone (group starting treatment) and 63 children (57%) whose treatment was started 2–3 years previously (group in the course of treatment). The control group consisted of 41 generally healthy children (15males, 25 females) with ENT problems, such as hypoacusis and a condition after nasal injury, hospitalized in the Department of Paediatric Otolaryngology at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland. The mean age was 11 years and 5 months (137 months) with standard deviation of 2 years and 5 months (29 months). Informed consent was obtained from the parents. The study was approved by the Bioethical Committee at the Medical University of Lublin (Resolution No. KE-0254 /216 /2012).
DOI: 10.5604/12321966.1233573
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