Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent malignant neoplasms in females. Such neoplasms can be almost completely eliminated by means of adequate primary and secondary prophylaxis. The most developed countries focus their attention on the improvement of prophylaxis systems, test quality, and efficacy improvement, as well as on the expansion of the primary prophylaxis. In Poland, the discussions focus on the improvement of the malfunctioning population programme. Objective. Drawing on recent research findings, the article presents current Polish and global recommendations with regard to screening tests for cervical cancer. The results of the Population Programme of Prophylaxis and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer are discussed in the context of current trends of healthy behaviour among women inhabiting rural areas. Description of the state of knowledge. In the future, it will be relevant to increase the number of human papillary virus (HPV) tests as part of the prophylaxis programme, especially among the high risk patient group. In particular, there is a necessity to increase the number of vaccinations among young women, especially before the beginning of their sexual activity, as well as to establish new strategies of secondary prophylaxis in this group. At present, women who had been vaccinated should undergo routine screening. In Poland, the report based on SIMP registry (IT System of Prophylaxis Monitoring), shows that only 27% of the 3.3 million of invited women participated in the cytology tests. The data analysis shows that women living in rural areas more often respond and participate in the tests, compared to women living in the cities (39.3% vs. 16.8%).